Viruses in reptiles

In this light, it is proposed that unlike other virus-induced neoplastic diseases, FP is a disease that may depend on superspreaders, a few highly infectious individuals growing numerous small tumors permissive to viral production, for transmission of ChHV5. Antibody titers measured dropped below the cutoff-level sporadically in all positive animals. In this light, it is proposed that unlike other virus-induced neoplastic diseases, FP is a disease that may depend on superspreaders, a few highly infectious individuals growing numerous small tumors permissive to viral production, for transmission of ChHV5. A subsequent study that reported the sequence of a large proportion of the CFPHV genome, for use in investigating its phylogenetic structure across the global distribution of marine turtle species, similarly concluded that co-evolution happened over a scale of millions of years [35]. Our results revealed 1) the existence of at least two distinct TeHV3 genogroups apparently associated with different pathologies in tortoises and 2) the first evidence for a putative homologous recombination event having occurred in a chelonian herpesvirus. Both cold sores and pimples can be bothersome, because they often hurt and may be obvious to others.


Chelonid fibropapilloma-associated herpesvirus (CFPHV) (Chelonid herpesvirus 5), is associated with the development of fibropapillomas and fibromas in marine turtles in all tropical waters, both externally on the epidermis, eyes, carapace and plastron, and in severe cases on the serosal surface of internal organs [35–40]. Cancers in humans and animals can be caused by viruses, but virus-induced tumors are considered to be poor sites for replication of intact virions (lytic replication). Ellen Ariel) at James Cook University in Townseville, QL. Although there are many recognised reptilian viruses, the evidence for those being primary pathogens is relatively limited. Antibody titers measured dropped below the cutoff-level sporadically in all positive animals. The revised family Herpesviridae retains the viruses of mammals, birds and reptiles, the new family Alloherpesviridae (from ἅλλoς – other, different) incorporates the fish and frog viruses, and the new family Malacoherpesviridae (from μαλακός – soft; μαλάκιoν – mollusc) contains the bivalve virus.

Laser capture microdissection revealed CFPHV in skin from a tumor-free turtle, harbored in both epidermal and dermal tissues. Our results revealed 1) the existence of at least two distinct TeHV3 genogroups apparently associated with different pathologies in tortoises and 2) the first evidence for a putative homologous recombination event having occurred in a chelonian herpesvirus. They can cause disease in many settings, e.g., hemorrhage disease in elephants caused by elephant endothelial herpesviruses (Wilkie et al., 2014); cancers caused by the human gammaherpesviruses Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) (Taylor and Blackbourn, 2011); pulmonary infection in cats caused by feline herpesvirus 1 (Thiry et al., 2009) and terrapene herpesvirus 1-associated pneumonia in Eastern box turtles (Sim et al., 2014); seasonal mass mortality in oysters (Nicolas et al., 1992); and herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis in humans (Whitley, 2006). However, neither agent was detected from most of the symptomatic tortoises we evaluated, indicating that other agents could be involved in the rhinitis-stomatitis complex. Alternatively, the possibility of other antigenically similar herpesviruses present in wild populations cannot be excluded, although antibody cross-reactivity with the lung/eye/trachea disease-associated herpesvirus was ruled out in this study. Although neither CMV nor HHV-6B DNA load was different among the three renal diseases, HHV-7 DNA load was different among the diseases (P = 0.039).

All inoculated subjects died, and PCR analyses demonstrated the ability of the m2 and M forms to spread and invade the brain. With the goal of testing the potential of the three forms as attenuated vaccine candidates, strain 4295 was inoculated intranasally into Hermann’s tortoises (Testudo hermanni). In March of 2012, a captive, juvenile, female northern map turtle (Graptemys geographica) from a zoological institution was noted to be weak with a frothy nasal discharge. Several hundred of these tortoises have been imported into the United States for the exotic pet trade.8 Rhinosinusitis is a common clinical syndrome in tortoises, often caused by Mycoplasma agassizii or herpesvirus.4,5,14,16 This study documents the presence of intranuclear coccidia and Mycoplasma spp. Despite antibiotic, antiparasite and rehydrating therapy, clinical signs including open mouthed breathing worsened and the tortoise died spontaneously. The genome of TeHV3 is at least 150,080 nucleotides long, is arranged in a type D configuration and comprises at least 102 open reading frames extensively co-linear with those of Human herpesvirus 1.