Use of Famciclovir for the Treatment of Endotheliotrophic Herpesvirus Infections in Asian Elephants (Elephas maximus)

Alignments were visualized by using Tablet (34). Unusual patterns and distribution of GC-rich sequence blocks and A or T tracts.The several small previously analyzed PCR segments of EEHV3 and EEHV4 DNA (totaling 4 to 5 kb each) were recognized to have a distinctive much-higher overall GC content of 63% compared to 43% for EEHV1A, -1B, and -5 (11, 20). Six were lethal hemorrhagic disease cases in young captive-born Asian or African elephants reported on originally in the study of Richman et al. Will you stop breeding elephants at Chester Zoo? Individual assembly algorithms tend to terminate contigs at different sites, producing contigs that overlap those produced by other algorithms. G-Phi and PCR amplification, DNA sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis.The G-Phi and PCR amplification, DNA sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis procedures were all described in the preceding accompanying paper by Richman et al.

This especially includes evaluating patterns of hypervariability that indicate that EEHV1A and EEHV1B are related, but partially chimeric, versions of the same EEHV1 species. Woodland Park Zoo has been engaged in a very public dialogue about the future of our elephant program since early 2013 when the Woodland Park Zoo Society Board chartered a citizen’s Elephant Task Force to provide input on this. These sentient beings are high maintenance and I reserve the utmost respect for them and their caretakers. These are the first known cases of elephants surviving EIBD. Both pregnancies were the result of artificial insemination. Over the past two years alone, six calves managed at institutions in England and Germany have died of herpesvirus infections, including Ko Raya.

EEHV1 genomic architecture. Tubes subsequently were centrifuged to obtain plasma. Gen. As his kids got older and prepared to fly the coop, he ran marathons, competed in triathlons, and, with his wife, Kay, sniffed out Houston’s best food, coffee and beer. 1997. As the sound travels over distances, the higher tones will fade out, leaving a lower pitch.

Hildebrandt, and C. 20008, USA (Latimer). In February 2011, a 42-yr-old wild-born female Asian elephant presented with bilaterally swollen temporal glands, oral mucosal hyperemia, vesicles on the tongue, and generalized lethargy. Schaftenaar ( A. She wanted to know what it was, where it came from, how it spread, and how they might be able to test for it.

Terell, a veterinary pathologist and the elephant species survival plan pathologist for the Association of Zoos and Aquariums. They are working with other groups to find out more about the virus which shows up sporadically in zoos and private collections. There is no known cure or vaccine,” the foundation said on its website. The disease has a sudden onset characterized by lethargy, oral ulcerations, edema in the skin of the head and proboscis, cyanosis of the tongue, decreased white blood cell and platelet count and massive internal hemorrhages, which lead to death within 12–72 h after onset of the symptoms. EEHV has now been attributed to be the cause of death of both wild and captive Asian elephants in India, Thailand and Cambodia (Reid and others 2006, Hayward and others 2009). x Kamprai 2008-09-24 FAE Elephant Hospital + -H Banh- EM F unknown 37 1973 2010 disease poisoned, ate toxic plants x 2002-00-00 Buon Don tour company (C�ng ty du lịch Thanh H�) + -Tahnee- EM F wild ?

Diagnostic detection of active EEHV infections carried out at the National Elephant Herpesvirus Laboratory at the Smithsonian’s National Zoo in Washington, DC uses a set of specific DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays to test elephant necropsy tissue and blood from suspected sick or dead elephants exhibiting signs of acute hemorrhagic disease. Dr. It will assist in understanding the prevalence of EEHV in the captive breeding herd and will lead to recommendations for management of this disease to minimize morbidity and mortality in captive animals in Nepal. In July 2007, a polar bear in the San Diego Zoo developed encephalitis and was subsequently euthanized. We know Max will be sorely missed, by visitors and by the keepers who worked so closely with him. Young Asian elephants are especially vulnerable to EEHV, as about half the deaths of young elephants in captivity are attributed to the disease.

A new weapon in the fight to prevent a deadly disease in elephants is being developed right here in Houston.

Use of famciclovir for the treatment of endotheliotrophic herpesvirus infections in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

The latter oligonucleotide was phosphorylated at its 5′ end, blocked by an amino group at its 3′ end and complementary to the 3′ end of the longer oligonucleotide. Five of these genes, including the additional second captured acetylglucosamine transferase E9A (vOGT), lie adjacent to one another between map coordinates 20.8 and 26.1 kb. Where necessary with very limited samples, initial GenomiPhi HY DNA amplification (GE Healthcare Life Sciences, Piscataway, NJ) was employed to increase the total amount of template DNA available for PCRs at multiple loci. How widespread is the disease? The second approach involved using custom Perl scripts to extract from data sets individual reads that extended contigs (31, 32). For completeness, data from five additional unchanged files (indicated by an asterisk) reported previously are also included.

Long, E. Nothing is more enriching in their environment than the social dynamics. A bull and cow must not only be genetically suitable to reproduce, but they must be compatible breeders. Trunk washes were collected by having the elephant draw up 50 ml of saline into its trunk, the trunk was then elevated for 30 seconds, and the elephant then forcefully expelled the saline into a plastic freezer bag. Obviously this is where EEHV has a very negative impact, because if we lose many of this younger generation, we will have little to work with to rebuild the population,” explained Olson, whose IEF supports EEHV research partly with donations from U.S. What unintended consequences might connect to recognition of a new lineage?

Accuracy and precision were ± 15% of actual values, and recovery was > 80% across the range of concentrations of the assay. Schaftenaar, F. Those who sent samples to the zoo’s National Elephant Herpesvirus Laboratory might get back enough information to know the Asian elephants were sick, but wouldn’t know for sure until they saw the physical signs and symptoms. The number of animal species found positive for a specific virus, ranged from 0-16. Musth is a condition unique to elephants, which has still not been scientifically explained. CrossRef, PubMed Garner, M.

In three elephants displaying clinical signs of illness, preclinical EEHV1 DNAemia was detectable, and peak whole-blood viral loads occurred 3–8 days after the onset of clinical signs. Subsequent EEHV5 viremia and trunk shedding was documented in the other five elephants in the herd, who remained asymptomatic, except for 1 day of temporal gland swelling in an otherwise-healthy 1-yr-old calf. A Unique User Profile that will allow you to manage your current subscriptions (including online access) The ability to create favorites lists down to the article level The ability to customize email alerts to receive specific notifications about the topics you care most about and special offers Register Now! Caccone, 2006. The project was unusual for Hayward’s group. Several studies have shown that DNAemia can be detected in Asian elephants before the onset of clinical signs and in elephants that do not display clinical signs using PCR techniques [15–19].

Phnom Tamao Zoo and Wildlife Rescue Center (PTWRC) + -Smokey- LA M wild 28 1973 2001-03-11 disease infection associated, digestive, mechanical abnormality, buried x 1975-09-16 Oakland Zoo (Knowland Park) + -Babe- LA F wild 43 1958 2001-01-16 disease infection associated; digestive, mechanical abnormality x 1962-08-30 Milwaukee County Zoo + -Congo- LA F wild 28 1973 2001-01-09 disease infection associated x 1989-00-00 Fund for Animals Black Beauty Ranch + -Tharun- EM M captive-born 5 1995-12-25 2000-12-30 disease cancer? Extensive additional viral DNA sequencing analysis targeted to specific key genes has been carried on many of the cases and recently the complete 180-kb genome has been deciphered for several EEHV species and strains. Once inside a human or animal, herpesviruses always go into a latent, or hidden, phase after causing symptoms (or perhaps no signs of illness at all). There is currently no knowledge of the prevalence of EEHV in Nepal, a country within the natural range of wild Asian elephants. EHV-9 and the highly related EHV-1 are endemic in horses. “The research and services provided by the National Elephant Herpesvirus Laboratory at the Smithsonian’s National Zoo are a critical component to the collective efforts of the elephant community for the preservation of these endangered species,” said Dr.

For the past year, the Houston Zoo has been working with researchers at Baylor College of Medicine to study the elephant herpes virus.