Strategies for intranasal delivery of vaccines

The washed tissue explant was cut into smaller cubes approximately 25 mm2 in size. A recent study by Corriveau and colleagues [11], employing the peptide nucleic acid-fluorescence in situ hybridization (PNA-FISH) technique, has demonstrated that S. Immunization with a single major histocompatibility complex class I-restricted cytotoxic T-lymphocyte recognition epitope of herpes simplex virus type 2 confers protective immunity. Some STIs can also be transmitted via the use of IV drug needles after its use by an infected person, as well as through childbirth or breastfeeding. The gD unlinked to an Fc fragment allowed us to evaluate FcRn-independent effects in vivo, and also determine the magnitude of any observed enhancement in immune responses conferred by inclusion of the Fc and FcRn engagement. Collagen was assessed by picrosirius red staining as previously described [5] .

The epitope in HSV-1 identified by the CTL clone 2D5 is identical in sequence to HSV-2 gB496-503 (11). Neutralizing antibodies have also been obtained after intramuscular immunization of rabbits with DNA coding for the L1 protein of cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (13). Grass pollen-specific immunotherapy by the subcutaneous route probably reduces asthma development (37); the sublingual route is under investigation (38). The washed tissue explant was cut into smaller cubes approximately 25 mm2 in size. or intraperitoneal (i.p.) dose of live HSV-2 TK− at 105 PFU. Epistaxis was generally self-limiting and mild in severity, and occurred at a higher incidence compared to placebo (5%), but at a comparable or lower incidence when compared to the active control nasal corticosteroids studied (up to 15%) as reported in clinical studies for allergic rhinitis.


In the latter case, the formation of the inner vesicle is topologically identical to that of L-particle formation without inclusion body, i.e. Recombinant adenovirus (ADV) vaccines.Efficient generation of recombinant adenoviral vectors has been described previously (4). immunization may prove to be a highly effective method of inducing immunity in the genito-urinary tract, it is unknown how immunization of the NALT leads to immunity at this distal mucosal site. From time to time, we display personal testimonials on our website or application in addition to other endorsements. Furthermore, the in vitro neutralizing activity of salivary and genital secretions containing specific IgA and/or IgG, and sera were compared by using an HPV16 pseudovirion neutralization assay (50). In any event, you agree that any Submission you make is not being made in confidence or trust and that no confidential or fiduciary relationship is intended or created between you and us in any way, and that you have no expectation of any review, compensation or consideration of any type (other than any stated Consideration).

NALT comprises a organised structure of cells involved in the induction of an immune response, including dendritic cells, T cells and B cells, which are covered by an epithelial layer of cells containing distinctive cells called M cells [9]. Patients who have immune system problems or use drugs that suppress the immune system (e.g., corticosteroids) may be more susceptible to infections than healthy individuals. 1 2 3), with statistically significant difference (p= 0.0141, Table 1). Likewise, intramuscular vaccination of healthy volunteers with recombinant HSV-2 glycoprotein B (gB)3 and glycoprotein D (gD) in MF59, an oil-in-water emulsion adjuvant, failed to confer any appreciable levels of protection against genital herpes infection or disease (4). To develop successful vaccines against mucosal pathogens a clearer understanding of these effector mechanisms as well as novel methods of inducing them will be required. Mammals express at least 10 TLRs that recognize specific pathogen molecules [3].

Both in turbinate mucosa and nasal polyp tissue, HSV1, with or without S. Following 16-24 h of infection, HSV1 penetrated the basement membrane and replicated in the underlying lamina propria. Viruses of the lentivirus family, which includes HIV, cross the BBB through the “Trojan Horse” mechanism [28, 29], driven by infected leukocytes, which allow the virus to escape the immune system and to move from the bloodstream to the brain. Click the target next to the incorrect Subject Area and let us know. infection by rSFV as a means of protein delivery to the CNS. Administration of the vaccine through an intranasal route failed to overcome prior ADV immunity.

Except for the site of administration, plasmid DNA was no longer detectable in tissues after 3 wk postadministration.