Strain-dependent structural variants of herpes simplex virus type 1 ICP34.5 determine viral plaque size, efficiency

The conversion of 5-bromodeoxycytidine to nucleotides and its utilization for DNA synthesis in uninfected cells occurs by deamination of 5-bromodeoxycytidine to 5-bromodeoxyuridine followed by phosphorylation of 5-bromodeoxyuridine to 5-bromodeoxyuridine 5′-monophosphate. The importance of specific variants of ICP34.5 to neuroinvasive disease potential and its correlation with small-plaque production, inefficient glycoprotein processing, and virus release were suggested by comparison of ICP34.5 from the SP7 virus, originally obtained from the brain of a neonate with disseminated disease, and the tissue culture-passaged progeny of SP7 (SLP5 and SLP10) and the KOS321 virus. Studies were done to determine the role of this pathway in the anti-herpes simplex virus (HSV) action of IFN-alpha alone or in combination with acyclovir (ACV), a combination that leads to synergistic anti-HSV activity. HEp-2, VERO, BHK and HEL both at 34 degrees C and 39 degrees C. No significant incorporation of iodocytosine or iodouracil occurred in the DNA of uninfected or nontransformed cells when the deaminating enzymes were inhibited, in accord with past studies in our laboratory with 5-bromodeoxycytidine and tetrahydrouridine. A total of 119 specimens were inoculated into conventional tube cell cultures and shell vials.

Although vhs is dispensable for virus replication in established cell lines in tissue culture, vhs mutants are severely impaired in mouse models of HSV infection (17, 18). One of its functions is to recruit protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) that leads to the dephosphorylation of the α subunit of translation initiation factor eIF2 (eIF2α), which is inactivated by infection-induced phosphorylation. However, an exonuclease-deficient (exo(-)) pol (D368A) was capable of slow strand displacement. Chou and B. Pederson and L. Mutants G207, HSV1716, NV1020, and Oncovex GM-CSF share in common a defect in one or both copies of the gene encoding the neurovirulence factor, ICP34.5, and are thus neuroattenuated.

Additionally, it inhibits the induction of antiviral genes by TANK-binding kinase 1. BVUrd was directly phosphorylated in HSV-1-infected cells, presumably by the virus-encoded thymidine kinase (TK), since (i) BVUrd was not phosphorylated by extracts of cells infected with a HSV-1 strain deficient in TK expression and (ii) the phosphorylation was inhibited by a polyclonal anti-HSV-1 antibody. In certain cells, ICP34.5 interacts with protein phosphatase 1 to preclude host cell protein synthesis shutoff by dephosphorylation of the eukaryotic initiation factor eIF-2 &#102 . The result was the reexpression of the viral TK gene. Treatment of the cells with 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine after the latent infection was established had no effect on the rate of virus recovery but did extend the latent period before active virus growth resumed. This sequence was placed in frame with the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) coding sequence and under the control of the simian virus 40 early promoter-enhancer.

They are capable of late viral protein synthesis and are superior to Δγ₁34.5 HSVs in oncolytic activity. These terminal autoreceptors regulate serotonin release from dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) projections throughout rat forebrain. The ICP34.5 from HSV-1 SP7 limits the extent and efficiency of viral glycoprotein processing. Fluorescent plaques were noticeably larger on cover slips treated with the enhancing agents. The protein was detected in wild-type-infected cells with rabbit monospecific polyclonal antibody directed against a fusion protein containing all of the sequences encoded by the open reading frame. (a) Human fibroblasts were infected with HSV-1 (0.1 PFU per cell) for 12 h and processed for standard electron microscopy.

In this study, an HSV-1 mutant (HSV1yCD) was engineered such that the viral ribonucleotide reductase gene is disrupted by sequences encoding yeast cytosine deaminase, which efficiently metabolizes the prodrug 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). In the present study, we comprehensively characterized these interactions by subcellular colocalization, coimmunoprecipitation, and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays. Previously, we reported that the US3 protein kinase blocks apoptosis, that it activates protein kinase A (PKA), that activation of PKA blocks apoptosis in cells infected with a US3 deletion mutant, and that an overlapping transcriptional unit encodes a truncated kinase designated US3.5. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. Recently, it has been demonstrated that herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) -infected cells secrete exosomes that deliver to uninfected cells the innate immune sensor, STING, and viral RNAs (1, 2).….