Imaging the Complications of Bone Marrow Transplantation in Children

Follow-up MRI images of the patients were examined and ADC values were recorded. If you think you’ve been exposed to HIV, by all means, get tested right away. The results of ADC calculations were displayed as both an ADC and a percentage of contralateral normal brain. Infection and neoplasia most commonly involve the peripheral divisions of the trigeminal nerve. Since the patient was considered to have had a stroke and the platelet count was normal, intravenous thrombolysis with alteplase was started at 23:08. However, diffuse delta slowing on EEG was not compatible with a psychogenic reaction or malingering.

A gyral or patchy parenchymal pattern may be observed in late phase of the disease. Diffusion restriction in the affected areas can be seen within 24 h of the symptom onset [98]. 1) revealed the presence of multiple, extensive, and irregularly shaped lesions in the cerebrum and left brainstem. All images were acquired with a section thickness of 5 mm, an intersection gap of 2 mm, a field of view of 18 × 18–22 × 22 cm, and a matrix of 256 × 192. No patient had been recently immunized or immunocompromised. Pulmonary edema may occur as an early complication of bone marrow transplantation, usually within the first 2–3 weeks after the procedure.


Instances of PRES have been reported in other patients using hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis (7,12-14). Several studies have used PET with the carbon-11–labeled, R-enantiomer form of PK11195 ([11C](R)-PK11195) to detect activated macrophages in the CNS of patients with multiple sclerosis (26, 27, 30), Rasmussen encephalitis (31), herpes encephalitis (32), Alzheimer disease (33), and multiple system atrophy (34). By using the electronic database of medical records, we could identify 23 patients, who had histopathologically-proven pulmonary cryptococcosis. A dramatic illustration of the dangers of such weapons came when anthrax was accidentally released from a Soviet military facility in Sverdlovsk in 1979.6⇓–8 At least 66 deaths resulted, perhaps many more. However, the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) results of IgG, IgM and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for herpes simplex virus were all negative. In addition, brain biopsy is invasive and costly.

Thin-walled, air-containing cysts or pneumatoceles may be seen.(54) Pneumatoceles may be present at the time of diagnosis or may develop during therapy for PCP. As controls, we reviewed brain MRI studies of 27 RRMS patients with 57 contrast-enhanced lesions exhibiting increased or normal diffusion based on DWI and ADC sequences. The clinical picture was characterized as follows: major ataxia, only slightly aggravated by eye closure, a cerebellar kinetic syndrome predominant on the right side along with a discret hypoesthesia of the right hemibody involving the face without motor deficiency, abolition of osteotendineous reflexes as well as a cerebellar-like dysarthria. In several of these studies, severe cerebellar involvement was associated with worst outcomes, including fatality (10, 41, 42). Second presentation MRI study: selected axial A) and coronal B) T2-weighted MRI at the region of circle of Willis showing an aneurysm at the junction between the distal ICA, M1-segment of MCA and the A1-segment of ACA, demonstrated as a flow void. After surgery he received prednisone, mycophenolate mofetil and tacrolimus for initial immunosuppression.

He failed the serial seven subtraction test, and only recalled one object in the five-minute recall test. CT may be negative in the early phase of disease, due in part to beam-hardening artifacts in the middle cerebral fossa. During the acute phase, the severity of EEG abnormalities has been shown to correlate with the prognosis [13]: fast improving EEG indicates a good prognosis and lack of improvement the opposite ([11], Class IV). Commonly, within 1 month of the beginning of prophylactic treatment (first and second phases), a usually reversible neurogenic syndrome develops with headache, altered mental status, seizures, and loss of vision or consciousness. On examination, he had pure alexia and right homonymous hemianopia with no other deficits. Obviously, if we have the option to do a KOH in the same query, we pautaremos antifungals without any shadow of doubt, and it goes without saying that gives quite quiet.

During the maturation of the immune system an immune response takes too long to be produced (up to one month) to corresponding antibodies sufficiently. Unrestricted water diffusion, such as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), produces low signal intensity on DWI and a high ADC.