Findings from Four New Cases

Line 4 was drawn from the superior fundus of the circular sulcus to the superolateral tip of the lateral ventricle (frontal lobe), and line 7 from the inferior fundus of the circular sulcus (5) to the most lateral invagination of the choroidal fissure (6). These patients differ from those with TGA in that memory for their personal life histories is much more severely affected than is their ability to learn and retain new information; that is, they have isolated retrograde amnesia.36 Our patient retained knowledge of autobiographical data and demonstrated anterograde amnesia, making psychogenic amnesia unlikely. Dr Wilson explains that although she has seen over 700 brain injured people, most with memory impairment, Clive’s case is very unique. SZ’s basic language functioning, including naming and comprehension, is preserved (likely due to his left-handedness) despite extensive damage to critical language areas in the left hemisphere. C.L.’s episodic memory, on the other hand, was far below expectations: She could not retain daily events, where she had gone on vacation, the names of places she had been, and other such information. 2004).

M. became amnesic with no known precipitating event during a 6 month period that began in late 1988. He was a non-smoker since the onset of his brain damage.1 Based on detailed reports obtained from his relatives (wife, children), we were able to determine that B.’s sense of smell was entirely normal prior to his neurological illness. came to Vicari et al.’s office, her chief complaint was forgetfulness involving both semantic and episodic memory. These memory disorders completely disappear, are rarely recurrent and their causes are diverse, sometimes hardly identifiable (sudden changes in temperature, intense physical activity, emotion). These investigations have used autobiographical or famous faces tasks, and the findings could be interpreted as consistent with consolidation theory.

Patient GD became amnesic in 1983 at age 43 following a period of hypotension that occurred during major surgery. If Reed and Squire (1999) are correct, then their findings necessitate one of two conclusions, either of which could have an important impact on the cognitive neuroscience of amnesia. Wilson , & A.D. In fact Tannen (1989) has argued in favour of the term constructed dialogue, over reported speech, on the basis that speakers seldom simply represent others’ words verbatim, and even when they do, the represented words are re-constructed for new purposes in the reporting context, as speakers select what details to represent, what tones to put with words, and what impression to leave with the listener. However, the clinical diagnosis of neurosyphilis is often difficult because most patients are asymptomatic or present with non-specific symptoms. Attacks are frequent, often occur on waking and typically respond promptly to modest doses of anticonvulsants.

PM was presented with carefully constructed familiarity tests of retrograde (and anterograde) memory for classical compositions, and performed comparably to musician controls in discriminating targets from foils. If the subject fails in the immediate recall task, he or she is reminded of the word, again requested to make a sentence containing the target, and to recall it in response to its categorical cue. It is not, however, comparable to the repressed memories of individuals who have experienced CHILD PHYSICAL ABUSE OR CHILD SEXUAL ABUSE. Damage to his hippocampus destroyed Clive’s ability to transfer short-term memory to long-term, creating a “moment to moment” consciousness. First, we presented excerpts of well-known instrumental music composed before 2005 — so before the onset of PM’s amnesia — paired with excerpts of instrumental music composed after 2005. The results of these sorts of studies have been mixed.

These various syndromes characteristically affect episodic memory, and important recent investigations have highlighted the clinical characteristics of transient global amnesia and transient epileptic amnesia, including overlapping and contrasting features. In this syndrome, the principle manifestation of seizures is episodes of transient amnesia during which other cognitive functions remain intact. Although all these etiologies of amnesia share at least some memory impairments in common, they differ substantially in the full range of neuropathological findings, neuropsychological presentation, and clinical implications. Disorders of behaviour or mood are usual in the 2 groups of lesions. The motive that carries Leonard through this movie, and ultimately through his life, exists only because of his inability to form new memories.