Final Rule on Regulations for the Importation of Nonhuman Primates | Laws & Regulations |

The occurrence of the four 1987 cases of B virus infection prompted CDC to convene a working group to discuss guidelines for preventing B virus infection in monkey handlers. Macaque monkeys are the natural reservoir for B virus infection. In humans, however, B virus infection can result in acute ascending encephalomyelitis, resulting in death or severe neurologic impairment. Louis. Chuang said that if people are injured by wild monkeys, they should go to a nearby hospital as soon as possible to receive rabies vaccinations. Over time, has issued guidance (e.g., reports, letters, and guidelines) to supplement these regulations and to manage the importation of NHPs.

The opposite transmission event—human to NHP—is less frequently reported. Severity of the disease increases for untreated patients, with a case fatality rate of approximately 80%.[2] Early diagnosis and subsequent treatment are crucial to human survival of the infection. The highest value was obtained for Bolivia (233 infections per 10,000 transfusions); in five other countries, it was 68 to 103 infections per 10,000. Cases of rabies in humans after injury by NHPs were also reported in 25 persons, mostly in Brazil (2). CDC has estimated that 12,000 health-care workers whose jobs entail exposure to blood become infected with HBV each year, that 500-600 of them are hospitalized as a result of that infection, and that 700-1,200 of those infected become HBV carriers. Human infections have been identified in at least 50 instances, with approximately 80% mortality when untreated.

The virus is present in saliva, feces, urine or nervous tissue of infected nonhuman primates, and is commonly transmitted through bites, scratches or percutaneous inoculation with contaminated materials, including needles or cages. Lepetitcolin, S. The monkeys on the island are owned by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) which is a part of the National Institutes of Health. In the United States approximately two-thirds of animal bites, or 4.5 million, are dog bites. Even the attenuated strains or exempt amounts of toxins require institutional biosafety committee approval to use at the Center. A CITES export permit will be necessary if you are shipping non-human primate samples.

See our Privacy Policy and User Agreement for details. All of the monkeys were caged individually, and newly acquired ones were quarantined for 2 to 8 weeks. About 50.5 million of these current infections are in men, and 59.5 million are in women, according to the CDC’s 2013 report, in which the researchers looked at 2008 data. Most macaques carry B virus without overt signs of disease. The virus must be assumed to be a potential health hazard in macaque bite wounds; this risk makes macaques unsuitable as pets. Tearing, eye redness, blurry vision, and ocular discomfort are the most common presenting signs and symptoms.

It is caused by a coronavirus called MERS-CoV. William R. It’s still unclear why she didn’t flush her eyes after the exposure, despite a plumbed eyewash station several feet away. Do I know anyone who has caught or died of Herpes B? (1) Importers must make their facilities, vehicles, equipment, and business records, including employee health records and animal health records, used in the importation of NHPs, available to HHS/CDC for inspection during operating business days and hours, and at other necessary and reasonable times, to enable HHS/CDC to ascertain compliance with the regulations in this section. Some exemptions and prohibitions apply.

University of Virginia Herpes Virus Research Laboratory. Tests on the monkeys showed that most of them were carriers of herpes-B virus. CDC is also proposing that all NHPs be imported only through ports of entry where a CDC quarantine station is located. The island is a 4,489 acre marshland island that consists of 635 acres of upland. According to officials, the monkey does not have the herpes B virus. CeHV-1, or B virus, is a double-stranded DNA virus with similarities to herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 and HSV-2.

Americans are increasingly exposed to exotic zoonotic diseases through travel, contact with exotic pets, occupational exposure, and leisure pursuits. According to the World Health Organization, the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is recognized as the leading infectious cause of human morbidity and mortality worldwide. Monkeypox is carried by both animals and humans. Alterman L. WASHINGTON — Exotic animals captured in the wild are streaming into the U.S.