Epithelium was replaced by fibrinonecrotic, suppurative mats, resulting in severe bacterial pyometra by day 24. In addition, mean maximal diameters of plaques were less than 20 % of diameters of wild-type plaques. Deletion analysis localized the IE2 responsive element(s) within a 72 bp fragment 5′ to the start of transcription. Western blots of proteins separated under nonreducing conditions established that gGS is secreted as a 120 kDa glycoprotein while the virion-associated species, gGVL and gGVS, are present in the virion as 140 and 20 kDa proteins, respectively. However, late in infection, the major IE RNA gene region encodes abundant RNAs which differ in structure from the major IE RNA. Four open reading frames (ORFs) were identified of which ORF4 showed 52% similarity to the gene-encoding PRV gX in a 650-nucleotide region.
Because of drug selection, every cell contained a viral genome. Furthermore, persistent BHV-4 infection caused no decrease in the growth rate of BOMAC cells. Efficient generation of mutants of EHV-4 would significantly contribute to the rapid and accurate characterization of the viral genes. This seemed to reflect an interaction of gp180 with glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), since compared to the wild-type virus, the Bo10 mutant virus was both less infectious for GAG-positive (GAG(+)) cells and more infectious for GAG-negative (GAG(-)) cells. To gain insight about the roles of ORF63 in the life cycle of a gammaherpesvirus, we generated null mutations in the ORF63 gene of murid herpesvirus 4 (MuHV-4). To gain insight about the roles of ORF63 in the life cycle of a gammaherpesvirus, we generated null mutations in the ORF63 gene of murid herpesvirus 4 (MuHV-4).
In Argentina, BoHV-4 was isolated and characterized in 2007 from vaginal discharge samples taken from cows that had aborted. All images are shown at the same magnification. This finding could be considered a new important step in studies on the potential pathogenesis related to BoHV-4. This report shows that infectious BoHV-4 can be present in milk cells and that therefore nursing may be one of the transmission routes of BoHV-4. Analysis of the regions located outside the gene blocks showed the presence of 12 open reading frames (ORFs). No bacterial pathogens were found in the tissues of the BoHV-4-positive fetuses.
Gen. Analysis of the regions located outside the gene blocks showed the presence of 12 open reading frames (ORFs). No bacterial pathogens were found in the tissues of the BoHV-4-positive fetuses. The two viral strains were mutually protective in that the calves were generally found to be refractory to challenge inoculation with either the homologous or the heterologous virus. Furthermore, the BHV-4 genes content and arrangement were more similar to those of HVS than to those of EBV, suggesting that BHV-4 and HVS are evolutionarily more closely related to each other than either are to EBV. Two major glycoproteins were characterized by monoclonal antibodies.
The selected Mabs were tested by the same IFAT against a panel of BHV-4 field isolates and against bovine herpesvirus-1, bovine herpesvirus-2 and alcelaphine herpesvirus-1 (AHV-1). The DNA probes did not hybridize to total DNA prepared from uninfected bovinecells or from cells infected with BHV-1, BHV-2, alcelaphine herpesvirus 1, pseudorabies virus, or equine herpesvirus 1. The 1.1-kb RNA promoter-regulatory region was specifically transactivated by the BHV-4 IE2 gene product, a homolog of the Epstein-Barr virus R transactivator, in cotransfection assays. Moreover, the expression of ORF50, a crucial gene responsible for switch from latency to lytic virus replication, was induced upon the exposure of NB-78 cells to hypoxia. Computer-assisted analysis of the primary sequence predicts the protein possesses a domain structure characteristic of a type 1 integral membrane glycoprotein. Our data suggests diseases caused by these viruses occur in Ethiopia but, perhaps because disease signs are not specific, they have not been recognized in the past.
The role of BHV-4 in abortion has not been definitively demonstrated but epidemiological and experimental facts suggest its involvement. Virus isolation was attempted from field cases of abortion, early embryo death, and postpartum vulvovaginitis/metritis, using uterine discharge and buffy coat preparations obtained from cows and tissues obtained from aborted fetuses. In the case of bovine herpesvirus 2 (BoHV-2), latency is established in neuronal tissues, while bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) and ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2) latent virus targets on cells of the monocytic lineage.