DNA sequence elements required for regulated expression of the HSV-1 glycoprotein D gene lie within

J Virol 89:262–274. During initial exposure on mucosa or skin, HSV targets epidermal keratinocytes and establishes a primary infection in the epithelium. Nectin-1 is a Ca2+-independent cell-cell adhesion molecule involved in the formation of adherens junctions, and is expressed throughout the murine epidermis [5]. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.7M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Full text Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Even if the HSV infection is not currently causing signs and symptoms, it may cause symptoms later.

It has been reported that the HSV-1 tegument protein, pUL48 (VP16), and the HSV-1 and pseudorabies virus (PrV) pUS3 proteins are associated with primary enveloped capsids in the perinuclear space (21, 38, 41). Chem. Our results verify that the strand exchange reaction mediated by UL12 and ICP8 produced intermediates that are typical of classical strand transfer reactions. At least two classes of viral fusion proteins have been identified; in both classes, tightly regulated conformational changes are involved in membrane fusion (5). One of these cell-penetrating peptides, the cationic peptide GRKKRRQRRR derived from the HIV tat protein, was shown to inhibit HSV-1 infection at the entry step in cell culture with a 50% effective concentration (EC50) of 1 μM (7). Manipulation of this hierarchal system by the elimination of an immunodominant epitope often results in the expansion of a normally silent or “cryptic” determinant (2, 17, 21).

Following uptake from the surface, recovery of intracellular, infectious virions increased steadily up to 20 min postinfection (p.i.), which corresponds to accumulation of enveloped virus in intracellular compartments. They are divided into alpha, beta and gamma subfamilies based upon sequence, cellular tropism and the length of the replication cycle [7]. Based on observations by electron microscopy, most marine viruses are thought to be bacteriophages (reviewed by Børsheim 1993 and Proctor 1997, and the average 10-million phage particles in every milliliter of seawater typically exceed the abundance of bacteria on average by a factor of ca. A prerequisite for productive entry of enveloped viruses into cells is fusion between the viral envelope and a cellular membrane. Early investigation can prevent failed assay runs. Disclosure of Any Conflicts of Interest* Indicate all relevant conflicts of interest of each author below, including all relevant financial interests, activities, and relationships within the past 3 years including, but not limited to, employment, affiliation, grants or funding, consultancies, honoraria or payment, speakers’ bureaus, stock ownership or options, expert testimony, royalties, donation of medical equipment, or patents planned, pending, or issued.

The structure represents the first atomic-level view of an oligomeric array formed by a membrane-deforming protein, making possible the dissection of its unique budding mechanism and the design of inhibitors to block it. These results demonstrated that gC carries O-glycosidically linked oligosaccharides in addition to the N-linked di- and triantennary glycans previously described (F. In nectin-1-deficient epidermis, entry was strongly reduced. These data indicate that detailed interviews of the parents are often useful in increasing the clinician’s index of suspicion for neonatal HSV infection. Here, we have determined the following. Instead, extraoral manifestations are frequent and affect 20–40% of the HSV-seropositive population [1].

Chimeric gD molecules composed of HSV and PRV sequences can substitute, provided the first 285 aa are from HSV gD. HSV-1 alkaline nuclease, encoded by the UL12 gene, is a 5′→3′ exonuclease that shares homology with Redα, commonly known as λ exonuclease, an exonuclease required for homologous recombination by bacteriophage lambda. 4). Memory and naming impairments have been reported most, although direct association between memory and naming performance and disease-related atrophy has not yet been demonstrated in vivo for a larger sample of patients. The persistent nature of HSV-1 infection, and the emergence of drug-resistant strains, highlights the importance of research to develop new antiviral agents. Structural features of gB are similar to those of vesicular stomatitis virus G and baculovirus gp64, and together they define the new class III group of fusion proteins.

This observation suggested that T3 regulation may be neuron-specific and have implication in HSV-1 latency and reactivation. The multisubstrate deoxyribonucleoside kinase ofDrosophila melanogaster (Dm-dNK) can be expressed in human cells with retained enzymatic activity. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) kinase UL97 is required for efficient nuclear lamina disruption during nuclear egress.