Chapter Two – Alphaherpesvirus Latency: A Dynamic State of Transcription and Reactivation

Although we cannot formally rule out the possibility that these LAT/ICP0 mRNA double-positive quiescent cultures may consist of neurons that express either LAT or ICP0 mRNA, it is also possible that quiescently infected neurons express both transcripts at the same time. 1). Many of the hepatocytes within these necrotic foci contained eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies, which are typical of herpesvirus infections (). The accession numbers for the sequences used in this analysis are shown in Table S1 in the supplemental material. Several laboratories have reported that Us3 induces solubilization of the nuclear lamina by phosphorylating lamin A/C (41). To test whether F-actin polymerization dynamics are required for proper VP26 organization, we treated cells with the actin filament-stabilizing drug jasplakinolide (jasp).

However, it is noteworthy that mock-infected cells contained an average of 9.69 PML-NBs. Phosphorylated ERK was immunoprecipitated from extracts prepared from cells infected with Becker or PRV174. Plugs were prepared 30 h after infection and subjected to PFGE to produce concatemeric … Herpesviruses have several common properties, including a large number of conserved enzymes involved in nucleic acid metabolism, DNA synthesis, and protein processing. 5A, inset), while CENP-C was generally completely dispersed in transfected cells (Fig. Antibodies specific for mannosidase II, a cis-medial Golgi marker, colocalized with gE in the cell bodies (Fig.


3A and B; see Movie S4 in the supplemental material). PK15 cells grown to approximately 70% confluency on glass coverslips were infected with virus at an MOI of 10. Blots were blocked with 5% low-fat milk in Tris-buffered saline (TBS-T; 150 mM NaCl, 10 mM Tris-HCl [pH 8.0], 0.25% Tween 20), and incubated for 1 h with monospecific rabbit antisera against pUL3 (44), pUL3.5 (19), pUL31 (22), pUL48 (23), and pUL49 (2) or EGFP (kindly provided by C. The G-alpha(o) subunit is actually one of two G-alpha types listed in ; it is downregulated during HSV-1 latency (Clement et al. Rab3a and Rab27a play important roles in regulated exocytosis in a variety of cell types; however, they do not appear to be associated with viral exocytosis in this cell type (, Movie S5). This timing is consistent with the most severe disruption of mitochondrial motility late during PRV infection (between 12–16 hpi, ).

Where indicated, Immobilon-P membranes were stripped by using 0.2 M NaOH for 5 min and rinsed with distilled H2O prior to a second antibody probing. S2). (A) Schematic representation of the “island” of multiple PK15 cells that seeded in close association with isolated neurite extensions in the far right compartment of compartmentalized neuronal cultures. We found that Rab6a, Rab8a, and Rab11a are associated with exocytosis of viral light particles ( to ). Secondary antibodies used were FITC-conjugated goat anti-rabbit IgG (Sigma) at 1/100 and Cy3-conjugated goat anti-mouse IgG (Amersham) at 1/1,000. Plaques exhibiting GFP fluorescence were plaque purified three times on G5 cells before stock production.

In line with this, the UL25 mutant was less impaired in packaging of HSV-1 amplicon DNA up to approximately 100 kb in size, indicating that UL25 is necessary for efficiently completing the final stages of packaging of the full-length genome but not for either cleavage or encapsidation of the smaller amplicon DNA (60). A negative control consisting of nuclease-free water was included in every assay. Glycerol archive stocks of the transformed cells were prepared with a Q-Bot (Genetix Ltd., Dorset, United Kingdom) robot to pick bacterial colonies. While the concept of isolating Us3 mutants defective in one activity but not another is daunting, restricting Us3 localization to a particular subcellular compartment, thereby limiting its access to distinct substrates, is perhaps a more practical idea. (A) Amino acid sequence of the Us9 open reading frame. LumiGLO was purchased at New England BioLabs and the polyvinylidene difluoride membranes were from Novex.

Periodically, newly replicated viral particles are transported out toward the periphery and cause recurrent disease. Apoptosis is a natural process essential to the development of multicellular organisms (Jacobson et al., 1997). This study also revealed the presence of at least four FPTHV variants that are separated by geography, and not by the species of the host [9]. In this study, we describe an in vitro system in which cultured peripheral nervous system neurons are separated from their neuron targets by an isolator chamber ring.