Chapter 17 Reproductive System Diseases and Disorders Flashcards

To get rid of a cold sore fast, try one of the over-the-counter medications, home remedies, or prescription medications commonly used against cold sores. – The largest cell in the female human body is the ovum or egg present in the ovaries. These sores often break open and cause a painful burning sensation on the genitals. We conclude that progesterone increases and estradiol decreases susceptibility to intrauterine chlamydial infection in this rat model. Genital herpes is caused by sexually transmitted viruses called herpes simplex. Women who use oral contraceptives should not smoke.

The ovaries stop releasing eggs (ova), and menstrual periods stop. When the first outbreak of genital herpes is mild and another outbreak happens years later, the person can mistake it for a first outbreak. The vagina is attached to the uterus through the cervix, while the fallopian tubes connect the uterus to the ovaries. combination: blood clots, increased risk of heart attack, headaches, fluctuation of blood sugar levels, edema, or premenstrual-like syndrome. In contrast, spleen cell proliferation was lower in chlamydia-infected rats than in saline-treated controls. Three factors in combination—the likelihood of contact with an infected person, the efficacy of per-exposure transmission, and the duration of infectiousness—are the principal determinants of the spread of sexually transmitted infection within a population (Anderson and May, 1988).


Increased miscarriage rate. Sometimes men with gonorrhea get painful or swollen testicles. immunization persisted for at least 12 months. To meet these challenges, the FRT has unique requirements as mentioned above, briefly.[6] The purpose of this review article is to examine key mediators of innate immune defense that protect female genital tract against pathogens. Our hormonal changes insure that we grow wise as we age, and some say, more beautiful. Among the life-threatening sexually transmitted diseases that have afflicted women, Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is unique in human history in its rapid spread, its extent, and the depth of its impact.

-Glans enlarge and spiral arteries increase in number. This review outlines the mechanisms of inflammation and innate immunity in the bovine female reproductive tract during health and disease condition. The Secretory/Luteal phase is characterized by high levels of progesterone from the corpus luteum to maintain the endometrium. In contrast, spleen cell proliferation was lower in chlamydia-infected rats than in saline-treated controls. Previous studies have demonstrated the essential role of Surfactant protein A (SP-A), a member of the collectin family of proteins, in protecting the respiratory system from infections. Transmission risk, which is estimated to range from 3-50 per 10,000 unprotected HIV exposures2, is influenced by viral load, virulence of viral strains, type of sexual encounter, presence of other sexually transmitted infections (STI), and whether the male partner has been circumcised.

It can be hard to tell a partner that you have gonorrhea, but keep in mind that your partner can have it and not know. This means understanding how their bodies work, knowing what choices are available to them, and having the confidence and skills to discuss and make changes in their sexual and reproductive lives. These two organs are connected by the cervix and the uterus is connected to the ovaries, where the eggs are produced. However, there has been little investigation of reproductive mucosal sites. In the past several years, investigators have more regularly used 16S rRNA gene sequence–based analysis (26, 27) to survey the vaginal microbiota (28–30). Puberty actually begins in the brain, when the hypothalamus signals the pituitary to produce two hormones that affect the gonads—follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH).

Married women aged 18 to 49 years were selected through systematic random sampling in a rural area. The WHO assessed in 2008 that “Reproductive and sexual ill-health accounts for 20% of the global burden of ill-health for women, and 14% for men.”[3] Reproductive health is a part of sexual and reproductive health and rights. 23). Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is an opportunistic mucosal infection caused by Candida albicans that affects large numbers of otherwise healthy women of childbearing age. To investigate the IgG content and its variations in uterine fluid (UF) during the estrous cycle of the cow and to compare them with those of the blood serum (S), six pairs of serum and UF samples for each phase of the cycle selected out of 240 bovine genital tracts and blood samples were collected from Urmia abattoir.