Universal precautions were observed during animal handling and specimen collection to minimize the risk of pathogen transmission between researchers and nonhuman primate subjects. Additional precautions should be considered with work involving animal activities. The amplified products were separated by electrophoresis on 1.5% agarose gels, stained with ethidium bromide, and visualized under a UV transilluminator. BSL-3 practices are recommended for handling materials from which B virus is being cultured using appropriate personal protective equipment, and BSL-4 facilities are recommended for propagation of virus obtained from diagnostic samples or stocks. E. Restriction endonuclease digestions of these isolates’ viral genomes are shown in Fig.
Macaques were kept in groups in cages and provided with food and water throughout the holding period. The GeneAmp XL PCR kit (Perkin-Elmer, Foster City, Calif.) was used for all PCR. All cells, vectors, and supplies were purchased from Invitrogen (Carlsbad, Calif.) unless otherwise noted. 1) were experimentally validated; these miRNAs are discussed below. Conversely, the inability of B virus gD-specific antibody to block B virus entry into host cells suggests that gD is nonessential for B virus cell entry (35). Therefore, from a safety and financial viewpoint, BV is a great impediment for those working with macaques in the research setting.
A cloned 2.6-kb SalI-EcoRI fragment containing the US4, US5, and US6 genes from the SMHV strain (SMHV/pBV-DNA) was provided by Akio Yamada (National Institute of Infectious Diseases of Japan). On the contrary, a gB null virus cannot penetrate target cells (9). An essential role for rafts has been described for the initiation of Fas-mediated cell death signaling (32). MuHV-4 is genetically closer to Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) than to EBV (16) but shares with EBV an infectious mononucleosis syndrome, exploitation of host germinal centers, and long-term latency in memory B cells (17, 18). HGFR, which binds FAS and inhibits PCD, is also over-expressed in human CD30hi lymphomas [30–34] as is PDGFR [35–37]. The median age of the patients with HHV-8-LBL was 41 years (range, 24-77), and 96% of the cases were associated with HIV.
One case of human-to-human transmission has been documented, when infection developed in the wife of a man who subsequently died of a CeHV-1 infection. Natl. In contrast, B virus infections in foreign hosts, humans or monkey species other than macaques, often result in encephalitis, encephalomyelitis, and death (53, 73, 74). Thus dendritic cells not only present viral antigens to lymphocytes, but can be exploited by evasive viruses to infect lymphocytes. fascicularis, M. Phone: (404) 651-0002.
Only alphaherpesviruses, such as herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 (HSV-1), HSV-2, and pseudorabies virus (PrV), express gD (62). However, in contrast to infection, PODs did not aggregate in IE1B-transfected cells, suggesting that other viral proteins are involved in the process. PCR amplification was carried out in a final volume of 50 μl of 10 mM Tris–hydrochloride pH 8.3 containing 0.2 mM deoxynucleotide triphosphates, 3 mM MgCl 2 , 50 mM KCl, 5% DMSO and 0.25 μM of each primer. However, as shown here, the lack of infection is not due to the inability of B cells to support latent KSHV infection. The genes for the transport/capsid assembly protein (tp/cap) and the DNA polymerase (pol) existed upstream and downstream of the gB gene, respectively. In 97% of cases, human herpesvirus 6 variant B was detected, but variant A was not.
Electropherograms obtained from conventional agarose gels showed that, for each type, the observed number of base pairs corresponded to the intended product and that bands were easily distinguishable from each other. The retention and activation of gB-CD8 cells appear to be influenced by persistent viral antigenic exposure within the latently infected TG. Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV 6) has neurotropic and neuroinvasive properties. This work describes analyses of the function of the murid herpesvirus 4 strain 68 (MHV-68) M2 gene. Ovine herpesvirus-2 (OHV-2) infection has been associated with malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) in susceptible ruminants. In an attempt to identify the human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7) envelope protein(s) involved in cell surface binding, the extracellular domain of the HHV-7 glycoprotein B (gB) homolog protein was cloned and expressed as a fusion product with the Fc domain of human immunoglobulin G heavy chain gamma1 (gB-Fc) in an eukaryotic cell system.
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